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First thing’s first, let’s talk about some basic hydraulics. Most shorter length culverts are inlet controlled and just about all storm sewers are outlet controlled. So for storm sewers, the flow is limited by the outlet conditions of the pipe and the roughness inside the pipe matters. The primary method to determine the flow rate (Q) of a storm

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Resistivity has to be one of my top ten favorite words used in the engineering community, and today I would like to dive a little deeper into how important this factor is in the longevity and durability of a pipe’s life cycle – hence the reciprocity or  “give back” of resistivity.I was thinking about the questions I often have to field with regard

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