During the past decade, a number of different media have been used for stormwater filtration and more recently for bioretention. Media such as sand, peat, and compost have been used successfully. Uses of perlite, zeolite, carbon, and other "exotic" media have expanded the choices for targeting specific pollutants. Media are now being used to target TSS, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Dissolved Phosphorus, dissolved metals and even bacteria. More recent research in biofiltration adds elements of biological uptake of nutrients and metals by plants, conversion of Nitrogen into ammonia in anaerobic zones.
Since the Environmental Protection Agency, and in turn state and local regulators, have gone all in on green infrastructure (GI) and low impact development (LID) concepts a seemingly regrettable consequence has emerged. Topics specific to the broader adoption and implementation of GI have monopolized our collective dialog on stormwater management of late. The predominantly positive press and barrage of GI heavy conference agendas seemingly suggest that if we apply GI far and wide then water quality impairments caused by urban runoff will soon be a thing of the past. GI provides stormwater practitioners with invaluable tools to aid in the stormwater fight, but many site specific challenges can’t be surmounted with GI solutions alone. To that end, should we be concerned that overemphasis on GI is discouraging innovation?
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